Return CGI Library
Sometimes you don't want the whole world to be able to see parts of your
website. Often you can accomplish this by not linking into the area
you want to hide, but that is insecure.
Most browsers support "basic" user authentication via passwords.
This isn't a secure protocol as the password is sent in a trivially
encoded manner, but that doesn't really matter if done on a secure (SSL)
At Baremetal this password protection is directory based. That is, all
files in and below a "protected" directory are password protected.
Any access to them requires that the browser provide a valid userid
Setting up password protection at BareMetal.
Without this gadget, setting up password protection is fairly simple. There are (the directory and) two files to be created: the
.htaccess file, and the actual file that stores the userids and encrypted passwords (the password file). The trouble occurs when you
try to maintain the password file :-)
With our pass_gadget tool, setup is somewhat more complicated, but maintenance is trivial :-).
The less complicated approach is to use create the password file using
http://baremetal.com/cgi-bin/mkpasswd and either build your own .htaccess file or use the customization
script in step 2 to help you (but ignore the parts about admin password, they are only applicable to the pass_gadget.
We need 5 items:
a FORM that talks to the gadget,
a directory to put the protected files in,
the .htaccess file,
the file to store the passwords in, and
a file to hold the encrypted administrator password [which gets set when you first use the form].
It is not that bad... one just has to look after ALL the details.
- Create the directory. It can have any name and be located anywhere. Hopefully
you use directories to organize your files so you're already familiar with
- Create the .htaccess file. This file needs to go in the directory that you
created in the previous step. It literally HAS TO BE called ".htaccess" That
leading period is important.
If you fill in your domain name in the following form, you'll be
sent to a CGI script on your webserver that will help you figure out
what goes into your .htaccess file, as well as doing some basic
testing to find out if you've got your files and directories
setup correctly... :-)
If you'd rather skip running that script, then
here's a sample file that comes fairly close to
what you'll need:
AuthName "secure area"
- (Halfway there!) this is combined with the next step...
- For security reasons the gadget won't create either the
password file, or the administrator password file. This means you need to
upload EMPTY files to fill this role. Both of these files MUST be in
your home directory (i.e. the directory above your top level HTML file). You
get to pick the password file name, and the administrator password file has
the same name except with .passwd added on (UNIX allows you to have file names
with multiple periods in them). [Anyone still awake?]
Update: The empty file requirement has been reduced to a file with
less than 13 bytes of data in it... Many folks were having trouble
uploading "empty" files... they usually ended up being one or two
In this example, the password file was called demo.pwd and was in tbrown's
home directory (full path is /home/tbrown/demo.pwd). That means that the
administrator password will be stored in demo.pwd.passwd.
[If you get one of these steps wrong, the gadget will tell you where it
thought things went wrong. ]
So you're wondering what the administrator password is, and how it gets set?
Lets cover that later :-), we're in step by step mode right now....
- The Form... :-)
Everybody say oohh... This is likely the toughest part. Let's put the
HTML for the form up, and then the actual form OK? (Yeah, I know you don't
have any choice in the matter... humor me, it is getting late :-)
<FORM action="/cgi-bin/pass_gadget" method="post" >
<input type="hidden" name="adminid" value="tbrown" />
<input type="hidden" name="file" value="demo.pwd" />
password: <input type="password" name="adminpasswd" />
userid to change: <input type="text" name="userid" />
action: <select name="action" >
<option selected="selected"> Add </option>
<option> Delete </option>
<option> List </option>
For add only:
user password: <input type="password" name="pass1" />
verify: <input type="password" name="pass2" />
<input type="submit" value="continue" />
OK. That's sufficient for your form. Note that there are hidden variables for
adminid and file. You could leave them as type=text values, but why bother? For
most folks they won't change. (And it makes the example seem simpler to use.)
So... here's the form. Give it a try!
There have been some questions about what to do with this form you've
created (e.g. where to put it and what to call it). The answer is fairly
simple: put it somewhere on your site (any directory, under any name --
once you actually create a userid/password pair, you can even move it into
the password protected area). The logic is fairly simple. This gadget
maintains a file of passwords, and the information about that file
is stored in the form. It is not directly related to your password
protected area. The .htaccess file you create to restrict access "happens"
to point to the same file -- that's the only connection between the
secure area and the admin gadget.
- Hang on, he said 5 steps... not 6. That's right. You're done. Now test it!
The form: more detail.
OK, so what's in that form and what makes it tick? Well, there's a CGI program
that makes it tick (/cgi-bin/pass_gadget). And the form hands 7 variables to
that CGI program to get it to do its magic.
|Variable||What the variable means|
|| this specifies who's directory to look in for the password files. [Who -- not WHERE]
|| this specifies the name of the password file and (indirectly) the administrator password file.
|| this is the magic password that you have to specify to add or delete a user.
I strongly advise that you don't bury this in a hidden field in the form.
|| the name of the user to add or delete.
||whether to list all the accounts, or to add or delete the given user.
|| one copy of the user's new password.
|| another copy of the user's new password.
How does the administrator password get set? The first time the script runs, the administrator password file is empty... The
script notices this and writes the encrypted administrator password into the file.
How do I change the administrator password? What you want polished gadgets?!!? Overwrite the administrator password file with an
empty file, and then re-initialize it as described in the previous point.
How do I change a user's password? Just add the user again. The CGI program will just over-write the old password with a new
How do I list the users in the password file? Select the List option! [It is new... that's why this item is still here...]
As a footnote. Under Apache 2.4 you can protect SOME of the files in a
directory like this:
AuthName "Restricted Area"